Ginsenosides are the primary active component of ginseng, the ethno-panacea used in traditional medicines for 100s of years. They have displayed potent antibacterial activity, themselves, or through metabolites such as 20(s)-protopanaxadiol, but that is not the primary reason for its inclusion (55-56).
It is of most importance as an adaptogen. Adaptogens
Ginsenosides and their metabolites, such as Compound K, decrease an array inflammatory signals like TNF-a, IL1B, IL6, Cox-2, and iNOS while increasing anti-inflammatory IL10 (57, 58). They also specifically block LPS induced inflammatory pathways (59). We mentioned it previously, but you will hear much more about LPS in the SupraBiotic™ and Primer™ write-ups, as it is the molecular bridge between dysfunction of the gut and dysfunction of the body.
As mentioned, Zingerone is a component of ginger, which is well known for its use in aiding digestive issues such a nausea and stomach pain. Its method of action in this regard is an anti-inflammatory (60).
It inhibits the all-important LPS, as well as TNF-alpha, inflammatory interleukins, and COX-2 (61, 62). It also directly inhibits the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway (63). TLR-4 is another one you will hear a decent bit more about in the SupraBiotic™ and Primer™ write-ups, but recall that it links LPS inflammation with the reduced insulin and leptin sensitivity that results in the cascade of type 2 diabetes and dysfunction of hunger and appetite regulation in the brain.
Zingerone is also quite potent at PPAR-alpha being comparable to pharmaceutical fibrates (64). In addition to being anti-inflammatory, it is a primary pathway of increased fatty acid oxidation. It works in conjunction with AMPK, which we will discuss more in a bit. And, yes, we will discuss both PPAR-alpha and AMPK in the SupraBiotic™ and Primer™ write-ups. PPAR-alpha and AMPK are basically the anti-LPS to TLR-4/CB1 pathway.
Hyperforin is a super potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory, in addition to super potent anti-bacterial, with radical scavenging at less than 1uM – this is 100 times more potent than N-acetyl cysteine (65).
It suppresses inflammatory prostaglandin PGE(2) biosynthesis better than prescription NSAID indomethacin, as well as inflammatory 5-lipoxygenase end product formation comparably to the research standard 5-LO inhibitor zileuton (66). It suppressed COX-1 product 12(S)-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid formation with about 3 fold more potency than aspirin, while being 18-fold more potent on 5-LO (67).
This is just a really cool and powerful compound in a lot of ways – and, most people probably just think of St. John’s Wort and components as anti-depressants. In any case, the efficacy of Hyperforin should make you happy.
Circumin is another anti-bacterial friend with anti-inflammatory benefits. It mediates its anti-inflammatory action through AMPK. In fact, it displays 400 times the potency of metformin, a Type-2 diabetes medication, with the well-known “side-effect” of fat loss (68).
AMPK is a primary signaler in the maintenance of tight junction integrity and intestinal barrier function. It is the one of the most important pathways in preventing the “leaky gut” we spoke of earlier in regard to LPS and other inflammatory and infectious molecules escaping into the body to wreak havoc (69, 70). Modern food processing and the Western diet are particular culprits in this pathology (71).
As we would expect from its super potency, it indeed protects against LPS-induced increases in production of inflammatory TNF-α, MIP-2, and IL-6, as well as tissue injury – and, it does so via AMPK activation (72). It reduces the levels of Toll-like Receptor-4 (the insulin and leptin sensitivity killer), while attenuating inflammation and symptoms of colitis (73).
So, there you have it.
Shock Therapy™ -- a first of its kind product which aggressively attacks the genesis of microbiotic dysfunction, including digestive health, metabolic health, and body composition, while promptly and effectively addressing and repairing avenues where this dysfunction is made manifest. You will have immediate relief of symptoms as well as steady restoration of broken systems, while the bacterial culprits are destroyed, paving the way for SupraBiotic™ and Primer™ to completely transform your gut, your body, and your health.
See "Full Science Write-up" here http://neobium.org/product-line/shock-therapy/#1 for references.